Richard Poulin is cofounder, design director, and a principal of Poulin + Morris Inc., an internationally recognized, multidisciplinary design consultancy located in New York City. His work has been recognized by major design organizations, competitions, and publications including the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA), Communication Arts, Graphis, Library of Congress, Type Director Club, and the New York Art Directors Club. Richard is a Fellow of the Society for Environmental Graphic Design, the organization's highest honor, and is a past President and board member of the New York Chapter of AIGA. He has been a faculty member of the School of Visual Arts in New York City since 1992 and was previously an adjunct professor at The Cooper Union. Richard is the author of The Language of Graphic Design and is currently writing and designing a new book for Rockport on the history of graphic design (not yet titled), scheduled for release in Fall 2012.
Bruno Monguzzi (b. 1941) was born in the small town of Ticino in the southern lake district of Switzerland.
For over forty years, Armin Hofmann (b. 1920) has devoted his life to teach-ing art, design, and the principles of visual perception and communications.
In the 1960s, American paperback book publishers and American graphic designers started working together for the first time with a collective, creative objective.
Like texture, pattern is a fundamental design principle that helps define the visual quality of surface activity.
Symmetry is a fundamental and timeless principle of visual perception.
Josef Müller-Brockmann (1914–1996), designer, writer, artist, and educator, was one of the pioneers of functional, objective graphic design and the Swiss International Typographic Style.
Vladimir Stenberg (1899–1982) and Georgii Stenberg (1900–1933), also known as the Stenberg brothers, were Soviet artists and designers who came to renown following the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Willem Sandberg (1897–1984) was a Dutch typographer and graphic designer, as well as a unique presence in the Dutch cultural world during the 1940s and 1950s.
In 1960, after completing his architectural studies in Milan and Venice, Massimo Vignelli (b. 1931) moved to the United States as cofounder and design director of Unimark International, at the time one of the largest design-consulting firms in the world.
In visual communications, closure can basically be described as a visual illusion.
An image is an artifact usually defined as a two-dimensional picture, idea, or impression of a person or physical object.
Asymmetry is the opposite of symmetry.
One of the most prolific collaborations between a graphic designer and client in twentieth-century American design was the one shared by Alvin Lustig (1915–1955) and the progressive publisher New Directions Books in the 1940s and 1950s.
Adolphe Jean-Marie Mouron, also known as A.
Lester Beall (1903–1969) was a twentieth-century American graphic designer notable as a leading proponent of modernist graphic design in the United States.
Max Huber (1919–1992) was one of the most significant graphic designers of the twentieth century and an influential figure in the history of modern graphic design.
Balance occurs when visual elements within a composition are equally distributed and arranged to communicate a feeling of stability and harmony.
Herbert Bayer (1900–1985), was a pioneering designer, typographer, architect, painter, photographer, and educator.
Saul Bass (1920–1996) was a graphic designer and Academy Award–winning filmmaker who received global recognition for his work in graphic, film, industrial, and exhibition design but was best known for his animated film-title sequences.
Abstraction is independent of our visual world.
Jan Tschichold (1902–1974) was born in Leipzig, Germany, the eldest son of a sign painter and calligrapher.
Expression is a design principle fully dependent on the graphic designer's individual ideas, personal moods, sole emotional outlook on the world, and place within it.
Light is a constant source of kinetic energy, ever changing on the infinite continuum of day into night.
Ludwig Hohlwein (1847–1949) was trained and practiced as an architect until 1906, when he became interested in graphic design and the visual arts.
Proportion is the systematic relationship of one thing to another in any given composition.
Typography is designing with type.
The visual principle of scale is defined as a relative, progressive classifi-cation of proportion or adegree of size, amount, importance, and rank in a composition.
Topic: Design Reference
Basic forms are derived from basic shapes—a square becomes a cube, a circle becomes a sphere, a triangle becomes a pyramid.
Color is one of the most powerful and communicative elements in a graphic designer's language.
Figure–ground is primarily the visual relationship between the foreground and background of a composition.
Topic: Design Reference
In 1947, Jan Tschichold (1902–1974) emigrated from Switzerland to Great Britain to accept a position at Penguin Books as its new design director.
Emil Ruder (1914–1970) was a Swiss typographer, graphic designer, author, and educator instrumental in starting the Allegmeine Gewerbeschule (Basel School of Design), as well as developing the International Typographic Style or the Swiss School.
Peter Behrens (1868–1940) was a true visionary and the first Renaissance designer of the modern age, moving with ease from one discipline to another—painting, architecture, product design, furniture design, and graphic design.
Takenobu Igarashi (b. 1944) is a sculptor and designer who has continually explored the fusion of two-dimensional and three-dimensional form.
In 1955, Jacqueline Casey (1927–1991) started her professional career as a graphic designer when she joined the Office of Publications (Design Services Office) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge under the design direction of fellow classmate Muriel Cooper.
Movement is defined as the act or process of moving or a change of place, position, or effort.
Space is an essential design element in all visual communications.
The principle of tension in visual communications is critical to effective graphic design.
In visual communications, tone (also identified as value or shade) means the degree of lightness or darkness apparent on the surface of an object.
Contrast is a visual principle that fundamentally provides the eye with a noticeable difference between two things or objects—large and small, red and green, light and dark, or hot and cold.
In basic terms, a frame is an enclosure to a visual image.
Fundamentally, a grid is composed of a series of horizontal and vertical lines that provide alignments and intersections for the graphic designer to use in an obvious or subtle manner.
Texture is defined as the look and feel of any surface.
One of the most basic and pervasive visual elements of a graphic designer's visual vocabulary is a line.
From ancient glyphs to contemporary symbols, shape is one of the fundamental elements of a graphic designer's vocabulary.
A point is the fundamental building block of all visualcommunication elements and principles.